HexArcade: Predicting Hexad User Types By Using Gameful Applications

Maximilian Altmeyer, Gustavo F. Tondello, Antonio Krüger, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2020. HexArcade: Predicting Hexad User Types By Using Gameful Applications. In Proceedings of the the Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play (CHI PLAY 2020). ACM. doi:10.1145/3410404.3414232


Personalization is essential for gameful systems. Past research showed that the Hexad user types model is particularly suitable for personalizing user experiences. The validated Hexad user types questionnaire is an effective tool for scientific purposes. However, it is less suitable in practice for personalizing gameful applications, because filling out a questionnaire potentially affects a person’s gameful experience and immersion within an interactive system negatively. Furthermore, studies investigating correlations between Hexad user types and preferences for gamification elements were survey-based (i.e., not based on user behaviour). In this paper, we improve upon both these aspects. In a user study (N=147), we show that gameful applications can be used to predict Hexad user types and that the interaction behaviour with gamification elements corresponds to a users’ Hexad type. Ultimately, participants perceived our gameful applications as more enjoyable and immersive than filling out the Hexad questionnaire.