Project Details


Games User Research

The Canadian computer game industry is the third largest in the world, behind the USA and Japan. The sector contributes $2.3 billion annually to Canada's GDP, it employs 16,500 people, and the demand for skilled talent in creative and technical roles is increasing. An essential area of the games industry is games user research (GUR). GUR focuses on understanding, measuring, analyzing, and designing the user experience in games. GUR draws from theoretical foundations to inform design principles that affect player enjoyment and immersion, and applies evaluation methods, data analytics, statistical analysis, predictive modeling, and visualization to assess player engagement. GUR aims to improve the gameplay experience by conducting usability and user experience (UX) evaluation often referred to as playtesting. Playtesting can be conducted by third parties or by an internal team as part of the same development studio. The HCI Games Group includes the leading researchers in this promising new field in the recent years, having helped define and advance the field. Not all independent developers could afford to hire a full-time internal user research team for their project or pay for third party consultancy fees. The challenge for small studios is to utilize the benefits of GUR while maintaining a strict budget, avoiding unneeded costs, resources, and tools. For this, an effective testing method at the lowest possible cost will need to be investigated. With this goal in mind, an effective user testing approach for indie studios should be delivered in a timely, accessible and, economical fashion. Thus the collaboration with XL to explore effective playtesting methods and tools specifically targeted at improving independent sized games.

People

Lead

Lennart Nacke
Director of the HCI Games Group

Participants

Gustavo Fortes Tondello
Ph.D. Student, Personalized Health Gamification
Marim Ganaba
Master's Student and UX Researcher
Pejman Mirza-Babaei
Affiliated Faculty
Naeem Moosajee
Master's Student in Games User Research, Digital Wizard
James Robb
Master’s Student, Player Experience
Jose Rodriguez
Master's Student
Mike Schäkermann
Master's Student
Melissa Stocco
Undergraduate Researcher
Rina Wehbe
Ph.D. Student, Errors, Perception of AI, Health Games
Giovanni Ribeiro
Master's Student, Games User Research

Publications

Year 2017


A Framework and Taxonomy of Videogame Playing Preferences

Gustavo F. Tondello, Rina R. Wehbe, Rita Orji, Giovanni Ribeiro, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. A Framework and Taxonomy of Videogame Playing Preferences. In Proceedings of the 2017 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '17. Amsterdam, Netherlands. ACM. doi:10.1145/3116595.3116629

Applying Gameful Design Heuristics

Gustavo F. Tondello and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Applying Gameful Design Heuristics. In Proceeding of the 2017 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2017. Denver, CO, USA. ACM, 1209-1212. doi:10.1145/3027063.3027116

Curiously Motivated: Profiling Curiosity with Self-Reports and Behaviour Metrics in the Game “Destiny”

Mike Schäkermann, Giovanni Ribeiro, Guenter Wallner, Simone Kriglstein, Daniel Johnson, Anders Drachen, Rafet Sifa, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Curiously Motivated: Profiling Curiosity with Self-Reports and Behaviour Metrics in the Game “Destiny”. In Proceedings of the 2017 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '17. Amsterdam, Netherlands. ACM. doi:10.1145/3116595.3116603

Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences

Gustavo F. Tondello, Alberto Mora, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences. In Proceedings of the 2017 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '17. Amsterdam, Netherlands. ACM. doi:10.1145/3116595.3116627

From Joysticks to Pokémon Go: Games and Play Research in SIGCHI

Lennart E. Nacke, Zachary O. Toups, and Daniel Johnson. 2017. From Joysticks to Pokémon Go: Games and Play Research in SIGCHI. In Proceeding of the 2017 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2017. Denver, CO, USA. ACM, 1330-1333. doi:10.1145/3027063.3049284

Left Them 4 Dead: Perception of Humans versus Non-Player Character Teammates in Cooperative Gameplay

Rina R. Wehbe, Edward Lank, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Left Them 4 Dead: Perception of Humans versus Non-Player Character Teammates in Cooperative Gameplay. In Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems. Edinburgh, UK. ACM, 403-415. doi:10.1145/3064663.3064712

Positive Gaming: Workshop on Gamification and Games for Wellbeing

Gustavo F. Tondello, Rita Orji, Kellie Vella, Daniel Johnson, Marierose M. M. van Dooren, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Positive Gaming: Workshop on Gamification and Games for Wellbeing. In Proceedings of the 2017 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '17 Extended Abstracts. Amsterdam, Netherlands. ACM. doi:10.1145/3130859.3131442

Testing Incremental Difficulty Design in Platformer Games

Rina R. Wehbe, Elisa D. Mekler, Mike Schäkermann, Edward Lank, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Testing Incremental Difficulty Design in Platformer Games. In Proceeding of the 2017 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2017. Denver, CO, USA. ACM, 5109-5113. doi:10.1145/3025453.3025697

Towards Personality-driven Persuasive Health Games and Gamified Systems

Rita Orji, Lennart E. Nacke, and Chrysanne Di Marco. 2017. Towards Personality-driven Persuasive Health Games and Gamified Systems. In Proceeding of the 2017 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2017. Denver, CO, USA. ACM, 1015-1027. doi:10.1145/3025453.3025577

UMAP 2017 Fifty Shades of Personalization - Workshop on Personalization in Serious and Persuasive Games and Gameful Interactions: Organizers’ Welcome

Elke Mattheiss, Marc Busch, Rita Orji, Gustavo F. Tondello, Andrzej Marczewski, Wolfgang Hochleitner, Michael Lankes, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2017. UMAP 2017 Fifty Shades of Personalization - Workshop on Personalization in Serious and Persuasive Games and Gameful Interactions: Organizers’ Welcome. In Proceedings of UMAP’17 Adjunct. Bratislava, Slovakia. ACM, 395-397.

Year 2016


Games User Research (GUR) for Indie Studios

Naeem Moosajee and Pejman Mirza-Babaei. 2016. Games User Research (GUR) for Indie Studios. In Proceedings of CHI 2016 Extended Abstracts. San Jose, CA. ACM. doi:10.1145/2851581.2892408

Investigating the Impact of Cooperative Communication Mechanics on Player Performance in Portal 2

Deepika Vaddi, Zachary O. Toups, Igor Dolgov, Rina R. Wehbe, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2016. Investigating the Impact of Cooperative Communication Mechanics on Player Performance in Portal 2. In Proceedings of Graphics Interfaces 2016. Victoria, BC, Canada. ACM.

Lightweight Games User Research for Indies and Non-Profit Organizations

Lennart E. Nacke, Christiane Moser, Anders Drachen, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Andrea Abney, and Zhu (Cole) Zhenyu. 2016. Lightweight Games User Research for Indies and Non-Profit Organizations. In Proceedings of the 34th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Extended Abstracts - CHI EA '16. San Jose, CA, USA. ACM. doi:10.1145/2851581.2856504

The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale

Gustavo F. Tondello, Rina R. Wehbe, Lisa Diamond, Marc Busch, Andrzej Marczewski, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2016. The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale. In Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '16. Austin, TX, USA. ACM. doi:10.1145/2967934.2968082

“The Collecting Itself Feels Good”: Towards Collection Interfaces for Digital Game Objects

Zachary O. Toups, Nicole K. Crenshaw, Rina R. Wehbe, Gustavo F. Tondello, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2016. “The Collecting Itself Feels Good”: Towards Collection Interfaces for Digital Game Objects. In Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '16. Austin, TX, USA. ACM. doi:10.1145/2967934.2968088

Year 2015


All about that Base: Differing Player Experiences in Video Game Genres and the Unique Case of MOBA Games

Daniel Johnson, Lennart E. Nacke, and Peta Wyeth. 2015. All about that Base: Differing Player Experiences in Video Game Genres and the Unique Case of MOBA Games. In Proceedings of CHI 2015. Seoul, South Korea. ACM, 2265-2274. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702447

Data Synchronization in Games User Research

Rina R. Wehbe and Lennart E. Nacke. 2015. Data Synchronization in Games User Research. In GUR Tool Design Jam. London, UK. ACM.

Games User Research and Physiological Game Evaluation

Lennart E. Nacke. 2015. Games User Research and Physiological Game Evaluation. In Regina Bernhaupt. Eds. Game User Experience Evaluation. Springer International Publishing, 63-86. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-15985-0_4

Personalization in Serious and Persuasive Games and Gamified Interactions

Marc Busch, Elke Mattheiss, Rita Orji, Andrzej Marczewski, Wolfgang Hochleitner, Michael Lankes, Lennart E. Nacke, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2015. Personalization in Serious and Persuasive Games and Gamified Interactions. In Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY '15. London, UK. ACM, 811-816. doi:10.1145/2793107.2810260

Toward Understanding Why Players Value In-Game Collections

Zachary O. Toups, Gustavo F. Tondello, Rina R. Wehbe, Lennart E. Nacke, and Nicole K. Crenshaw. 2015. Toward Understanding Why Players Value In-Game Collections. In Workshop on Personalization in Serious and Persuasive Games and Gamified Interactions. London, UK. ACM.

Towards Understanding the Importance of Co-Located Gameplay

Rina R. Wehbe and Lennart E. Nacke. 2015. Towards Understanding the Importance of Co-Located Gameplay. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2015. London, United Kingdom. ACM. doi:2793107.2810312

Understanding Player Attitudes Towards Digital Game Objects

Gustavo F. Tondello, Rina R. Wehbe, Zachary O. Toups, Lennart E. Nacke, and Nicole K. Crenshaw. 2015. Understanding Player Attitudes Towards Digital Game Objects. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2015. London, United Kingdom. ACM. doi:10.1145/2793107.2810292

Validating Test Chambers to Study Cooperative Communication Mechanics in Portal 2

Deepika Vaddi, Rina R. Wehbe, Zachary O. Toups, Samantha N. Stahlke, Rylan Koroluk, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2015. Validating Test Chambers to Study Cooperative Communication Mechanics in Portal 2. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2015. London, United Kingdom. ACM.

Year 2014


BrainHex: A Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey

Lennart E. Nacke, Chris Bateman, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2014. BrainHex: A Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey. In Entertainment Computing 5, 1: 55-62. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.entcom.2013.06.002

Developing Iconic and Semi-Iconic Game Controllers

Lennart E. Nacke, João Costa, Dennis L. Kappen, James Robb, and Daniel Buckstein. 2014. Developing Iconic and Semi-Iconic Game Controllers. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 435-436. doi:10.1145/2658537.2661327

Engaged by Boos and Cheers: The Effect of Co-Located Game Audiences on Social Player Experience

Dennis L. Kappen, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Jens Johannsmeier, Daniel Buckstein, James Robb, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Engaged by Boos and Cheers: The Effect of Co-Located Game Audiences on Social Player Experience. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 151-160. doi:10.1145/2658537.2658687

Fuzzy Affective Player Models: A Physiology-Based Hierarchical Clustering Method

Pedro Nogueira, Rúben Aguiar, Rui Rodrigues, Eugénio Oliveira, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Fuzzy Affective Player Models: A Physiology-Based Hierarchical Clustering Method. In Proceedings of AIIDE 2014. Raleigh, NC, United States. AAAI, 132-138.

Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Reaching Beyond CHI

Lennart E. Nacke, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Magy Seif El-Nasr, Heather Desurvire, and Regina Bernhaupt. 2014. Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Reaching Beyond CHI. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 1123-1126. doi:10.1145/2559206.2559216

Introducing the Biometric Storyboards Tool for Games User Research

Pejman Mirza-Babaei and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Introducing the Biometric Storyboards Tool for Games User Research. In Proceedings of IEEE GEM 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. IEEE, 1-7. doi:10.1109/GEM.2014.7048098

Player Experience: Mixed Methods and Reporting Results

Veronica Zammitto, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Ian Livingston, Marina Kobayashi, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Player Experience: Mixed Methods and Reporting Results. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 147-150. doi:10.1145/2559206.2559239

Social Player Analytics in a Facebook Health Game

Lennart E. Nacke, Matthias Klauser, and Paul Prescod. 2014. Social Player Analytics in a Facebook Health Game. In Proceedings of HCI Korea 2014. Seoul, Republic of Korea. Hanbit Media, Inc., 180-187.

The Edge of Glory: The Relationship Between Metacritic Scores and Player Experience

Daniel Johnson, Christopher N. Watling, John Gardner, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. The Edge of Glory: The Relationship Between Metacritic Scores and Player Experience. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 141-150. doi:10.1145/2658537.2658694

Understanding Expectations with Multiple Controllers in an Augmented Reality Videogame

Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Nathan Gale, João Costa, Lennart E. Nacke, and Daniel Johnson. 2014. Understanding Expectations with Multiple Controllers in an Augmented Reality Videogame. In Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 201-206. doi:10.1145/2658537.2658705

Unified Visualization of Quantitative and Qualitative Playtesting Data

Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Günter Wallner, Graham McAllister, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Unified Visualization of Quantitative and Qualitative Playtesting Data. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2014. Toronto, ON, Canada. ACM, 1363-1368. doi:10.1145/2559206.2581224

Year 2013


A Hybrid Approach at Emotional State Detection: Merging Theoretical Models of Emotion with Data-Driven Statistical Classifiers

Pedro Nogueira, Rui Rodrigues, Eugénio Oliveira, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. A Hybrid Approach at Emotional State Detection: Merging Theoretical Models of Emotion with Data-Driven Statistical Classifiers. In Proceedings of WI-IAT 2013. Atlanta, GA, United States. IEEE, 253-260. doi:10.1109/WI-IAT.2013.117

A Regression-Based Method for Lightweight Emotional State Detection in Interactive Environments

Pedro Nogueira, Rui Rodrigues, Eugénio Oliveira, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. A Regression-Based Method for Lightweight Emotional State Detection in Interactive Environments. In XVI Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence (EPIA) 2013. Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

An Introduction to EEG Analysis Techniques and Brain-Computer Interfaces for Games User Researchers

Rina R. Wehbe and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. An Introduction to EEG Analysis Techniques and Brain-Computer Interfaces for Games User Researchers. In Proceedings of DIGRA 2013. Atlanta, GA, United States. DiGRA, 1-16.

An Introduction to Physiological Player Metrics for Evaluating Games

Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. An Introduction to Physiological Player Metrics for Evaluating Games. In Alessandro Canossa, Anders Drachen, and Magy Seif El-Nasr. Eds. Game Analytics: Maximizing the Value of Player Data. Springer London, 585-619. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-4769-5_26

Assessing User Preference of Video Game Controller Button Settings

William Ellick, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Sharon Wood, Duncan Smith, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. Assessing User Preference of Video Game Controller Button Settings. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013. Paris, France. ACM, 1107-1112. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468554

Contextual Influences on Mobile Player Experience--A Game User Experience Model

Stephan Engl and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. Contextual Influences on Mobile Player Experience--A Game User Experience Model. In Entertainment Computing 4, 1: 83-91. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.entcom.2012.06.001

Designing and Evaluating Sociability in Online Video Games

Georgios Christou, Effie Lai-Chong Law, David Geerts, Lennart E. Nacke, and Panayiotis Zaphiris. 2013. Designing and Evaluating Sociability in Online Video Games. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013. Paris, France. ACM, 3239-3242. doi:10.1145/2468356.2479656

EEG-Based Assessment of Video and In-Game Learning

Rina R. Wehbe, Dennis L. Kappen, David Rojas, Matthias Klauser, Bill Kapralos, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. EEG-Based Assessment of Video and In-Game Learning. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013. Paris, France. ACM, 667-672. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468474

Exploring Social Interaction in Co-Located Multiplayer Games

Dennis L. Kappen, John Gregory, Daniel Stepchenko, Rina R. Wehbe, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. Exploring Social Interaction in Co-Located Multiplayer Games. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013. Paris, France. ACM, 1119-1124. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468556

Games User Research: Practice, Methods, and Applications

Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Veronica Zammitto, Joerg Niesenhaus, Mirweis Sangin, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. Games User Research: Practice, Methods, and Applications. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2013. Paris, France. ACM, 3219-3222. doi:10.1145/2468356.2479651

Guided Emotional State Regulation: Understanding and Shaping Players' Affective Experiences in Digital Games

Pedro Nogueira, Rui Rodrigues, Eugénio Oliveira, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. Guided Emotional State Regulation: Understanding and Shaping Players' Affective Experiences in Digital Games. In Proceedings of AIIDE 2009. Palo Alto, CA, United States. 51-57.

How Does It Play Better? Exploring User Testing and Biometric Storyboards in Games User Research

Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E. Nacke, John Gregory, Nick Collins, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. 2013. How Does It Play Better? Exploring User Testing and Biometric Storyboards in Games User Research. In Proceedings of CHI 2012. Paris, France. ACM, 1499-1508. doi:10.1145/2470654.2466200

The Effect of Sound on Visual Fidelity Perception in Stereoscopic 3-D

David Rojas, Bill Kapralos, Andrew Hogue, Karen Collins, Lennart E. Nacke, Sayra Cristancho, Cristina Conati, and Adam Dubrowski. 2013. The Effect of Sound on Visual Fidelity Perception in Stereoscopic 3-D. In IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics 43, 6: 1572-1583. IEEE. doi:10.1109/TCYB.2013.2269712

The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications

Dennis L. Kappen and Lennart E. Nacke. 2013. The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications. In Proceedings of Gamification 2013. Stratford, ON, Canada. ACM, 119-122.

Year 2012


"I'm Just Here to Play Games": Social Dynamics and Sociality in an Online Game Site

Gregor McEwan, Carl Gutwin, Regan L. Mandryk, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2012. "I'm Just Here to Play Games": Social Dynamics and Sociality in an Online Game Site. In Proceedings of CSCW 2012. Seattle, WA, United States. ACM, 549-558. doi:10.1145/2145204.2145289

Analysing Social Metrics in an Online Game Site

Gregor McEwan, Carl Gutwin, Regan L. Mandryk, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2012. Analysing Social Metrics in an Online Game Site. In Proceedings of GRAND 2012. Montréal, QC, Canada. .

Biometric Storyboards: Visualising Game User Research Data

Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E. Nacke, Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Gareth R. White, Graham McAllister, and Nick Collins. 2012. Biometric Storyboards: Visualising Game User Research Data. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2012. Austin, TX, United States. ACM, 2315-2320. doi:10.1145/2212776.2223795

Feedback-Based Gameplay Metrics: Measuring Player Experience via Automatic Visual Analysis

Raphaël Marczak, Jasper van Vught, Gareth Schott, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2012. Feedback-Based Gameplay Metrics: Measuring Player Experience via Automatic Visual Analysis. In Proceedings of ACM IE 2012. Auckland, New Zealand. ACM, 6. doi:10.1145/2336727.2336733

Flow in Games: Proposing a Flow Experience Model

Lennart E. Nacke. 2012. Flow in Games: Proposing a Flow Experience Model. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Conceptualising, Operationalising and Measuring the Player Experience in Videogames at Fun and Games 2012. Toulouse, France. ACM, 104-108.

Full-Body Motion-Based Game Interaction for Older Adults

Kathrin M. Gerling, Ian Livingston, Lennart E. Nacke, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2012. Full-Body Motion-Based Game Interaction for Older Adults. In Proceedings of CHI 2012. Austin, TX, United States. ACM, 1873-1882. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208324

Game User Research

Magy Seif El-Nasr, Heather Desurvire, Lennart E. Nacke, Anders Drachen, Licia Calvi, Katherine Isbister, and Regina Bernhaupt. 2012. Game User Research. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2012. Austin, TX, United States. ACM, 2679-2682. doi:10.1145/2212776.2212694

Mixed Reality Games

Elizabeth Bonsignore, Derek L. Hansen, Zachary O. Toups, Lennart E. Nacke, Anastasia Salter, and Wayne Lutters. 2012. Mixed Reality Games. In Proceedings of CSCW 2012. Seattle, WA, United States. ACM, 7-8. doi:10.1145/2141512.2141517

Motion-Based Game Design for Older Adults

Kathrin M. Gerling, Ian Livingston, Lennart E. Nacke, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2012. Motion-Based Game Design for Older Adults. In Proceedings of GRAND 2012. Montréal, QC, Canada. .

Year 2011


Accessible Games SIG

Arnie Lund, Annuska Perkins, Sri Kurniawan, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2011. Accessible Games SIG. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 883-886. doi:10.1145/1979742.1979545

Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction

Lennart E. Nacke, Michael Kalyn, Calvin Lough, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2011. Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction. In Proceedings of CHI 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 103-112. doi:10.1145/1978942.1978958

BrainHex: Preliminary Results from a Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey

Lennart E. Nacke, Chris Bateman, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2011. BrainHex: Preliminary Results from a Neurobiological Gamer Typology Survey. In Proceedings of ICEC 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 288-293. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24500-8_31

Calibration Games : Making Calibration Tasks Enjoyable by Adding Motivating Game Elements

David R. Flatla, Carl Gutwin, Lennart E. Nacke, Scott Bateman, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2011. Calibration Games : Making Calibration Tasks Enjoyable by Adding Motivating Game Elements. In Proceedings of ACM UIST 2011. Santa Barbara, CA, United States. ACM, 403-412. doi:10.1145/2047196.2047248

Developing a Triangulation System for Digital Game Events, Observational Video, and Psychophysiological Data to Study Emotional Responses to a Virtual Character

J. Matias Kivikangas, Lennart E. Nacke, and Niklas Ravaja. 2011. Developing a Triangulation System for Digital Game Events, Observational Video, and Psychophysiological Data to Study Emotional Responses to a Virtual Character. In Entertainment Computing 2, 1: 11-16. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.entcom.2011.03.006

Directions in Physiological Game Evaluation and Interaction

Lennart E. Nacke. 2011. Directions in Physiological Game Evaluation and Interaction. In Proceedings of the BBI Workshop at CHI 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. .

From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining "Gamification"

Sebastian Deterding, Dan Dixon, Rilla Khaled, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2011. From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining "Gamification". In Proceedings of MindTrek 2011. Tampere, Finland. ACM, 9-15. doi:10.1145/2181037.2181040

Gamification: Toward a Definition

Sebastian Deterding, Rilla Khaled, Lennart E. Nacke, and Dan Dixon. 2011. Gamification: Toward a Definition. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. .

Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts

Sebastian Deterding, Miguel Sicart, Lennart E. Nacke, Kenton O'Hara, and Dan Dixon. 2011. Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 2425-2428. doi:10.1145/1979742.1979575

Influencing Experience: The Effects of Reading Game Reviews on Player Experience

Ian Livingston, Lennart E. Nacke, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2011. Influencing Experience: The Effects of Reading Game Reviews on Player Experience. In Proceedings of ICEC 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 89-100. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24500-8_10

Player Typology in Theory and Practice

Chris Bateman, Rebecca Lowenhaupt, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2011. Player Typology in Theory and Practice. In Proceedings of DIGRA 2011. Utrecht, The Netherlands. .

Player-Game Interaction Through Affective Sound

Lennart E. Nacke and Mark Grimshaw. 2011. Player-Game Interaction Through Affective Sound. In Mark Grimshaw. Eds. Game Sound Technology and Player Interaction: Concepts and Developments. Hershey, PA, United States. IGI Global, 264-285. doi:10.4018/978-1-61692-828-5.ch013

The Impact of Negative Game Reviews and User Comments on Player Experience

Ian Livingston, Lennart E. Nacke, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2011. The Impact of Negative Game Reviews and User Comments on Player Experience. In Proceedings of ACM SIBGRAPH 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 4. doi:10.1145/2037692.2037697

Towards a Framework of Player Experience Research

Lennart E. Nacke and Anders Drachen. 2011. Towards a Framework of Player Experience Research. In Proceedings of EPEX 2011. Bordeaux, France. .

Year 2010


BioS-Play: Workshop on Multiuser and Social Biosignal Adaptive Games and Playful Applications

Kai Kuikkaniemi, Marko Trupeinen, Hannu Korhonen, Niklas Ravaja, Guillaume Chanel, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2010. BioS-Play: Workshop on Multiuser and Social Biosignal Adaptive Games and Playful Applications. In Proceedings of a Workshop at Fun and Games 2010. Leuven, Belgium. ACM.

Brain, Body and Bytes: Psychophysiological User Interaction

Audrey Girouard, Erin T. Solovey, Regan L. Mandryk, Desney Tan, Lennart E. Nacke, and Robert J.K. Jacob. 2010. Brain, Body and Bytes: Psychophysiological User Interaction. In Proceedings of CHI EA 2010. Atlanta, GA, United States. ACM, 4433-4436. doi:10.1145/1753846.1754167

Bringing Digital Games to User Research and User Experience

Lennart E. Nacke, Joerg Niesenhaus, Stephan Engl, Alessandro Canossa, Kai Kuikkaniemi, and Thomas Immich. 2010. Bringing Digital Games to User Research and User Experience. In Proceedings of the Entertainment Interfaces Track 2010 at Interaktive Kulturen 2010. Duisburg, Germany. .

Correlation Between Heart Rate, Electrodermal Activity and Player Experience in First-Person Shooter Games

Anders Drachen, Lennart E. Nacke, Georgies Yannakakis, and Anja L. Pedersen. 2010. Correlation Between Heart Rate, Electrodermal Activity and Player Experience in First-Person Shooter Games. In R. Wainess and S. N. Spencer. Eds. Proceedings of ACM Siggraph 2010. Los Angeles, CA, United States. ACM, 49-54. doi:10.1145/1836135.1836143

Critic-Proofing: Robust Validation Through Data-Mining

Ian Livingston, Lennart E. Nacke, and Regan L. Mandryk. 2010. Critic-Proofing: Robust Validation Through Data-Mining. In Proceedings of Fun and Games 2010: 81-94. Leuven, Belgium. .

Designing Affective Games with Physiological Input

Lennart E. Nacke and Regan L. Mandryk. 2010. Designing Affective Games with Physiological Input. In Proceedings of Fun and Games BiosPlay Workshop 2010. Leuven, Belgium. ACM.

Electroencephalographic Assessment of Player Experience: A Pilot Study in Affective Ludology

Lennart E. Nacke, Sophie Stellmach, and Craig A. Lindley. 2010. Electroencephalographic Assessment of Player Experience: A Pilot Study in Affective Ludology. In Simulation & Gaming 42, 5: 632-655. SAGE Publications. doi:10.1177/1046878110378140

Gameplay Experience Testing with Playability and Usability Surveys-An Experimental Pilot Study

Lennart E. Nacke, Jonas Schild, and Joerg Niesenhaus. 2010. Gameplay Experience Testing with Playability and Usability Surveys-An Experimental Pilot Study. In Proceedings of Playability and Player Experience Workshop at Fun and Games 2010: 31-45. Leuven, Belgium. ACM.

Methods for Evaluating Gameplay Experience in a Serious Gaming Context

Lennart E. Nacke, Anders Drachen, and Stefan Göbel. 2010. Methods for Evaluating Gameplay Experience in a Serious Gaming Context. In International Journal of Computer Science in Sport 9, 2. .

More Than a Feeling: Measurement of Sonic User Experience and Psychophysiology in a First-Person Shooter Game

Lennart E. Nacke, Mark Grimshaw, and Craig A. Lindley. 2010. More Than a Feeling: Measurement of Sonic User Experience and Psychophysiology in a First-Person Shooter Game. In Interacting with Computers 22, 5: 7. Interact Comput. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.005

Playability and Player Experience of Casual Games

Licia Calvi, Stefano Gualeni, Koos Nuijten, Lennart E. Nacke, and Karolien Poels. 2010. Playability and Player Experience of Casual Games. In Proceedings of Fun and Games 2010. Leuven, Belgium. .

The Neurobiology of Play

Chris Bateman and Lennart E. Nacke. 2010. The Neurobiology of Play. In Proceedings of Futureplay 2010. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 1-8. doi:10.1145/1920778.1920780

Wiimote vs. Controller: Electroencephalographic Measurement of Affective Gameplay Interaction

Lennart E. Nacke. 2010. Wiimote vs. Controller: Electroencephalographic Measurement of Affective Gameplay Interaction. In Proceedings of Futureplay 2010. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 159-166. doi:10.1145/1920778.1920801

Year 2009


Affective Ludology, Flow and Immersion in a First-Person Shooter: Measurement of Player Experience

Lennart E. Nacke and Craig A. Lindley. 2009. Affective Ludology, Flow and Immersion in a First-Person Shooter: Measurement of Player Experience. In Loading...: The Journal of the Canadian Game Studies Association 3, 5. .

Affective Ludology: Scientific Measurement of User Experience in Interactive Entertainment

Lennart E. Nacke. 2009. Affective Ludology: Scientific Measurement of User Experience in Interactive Entertainment. Karlskrona, Sweden. Blekinge Institute of Technology.

Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience.

Lennart E. Nacke, A. Nacke., and Craig A. Lindley. 2009. Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience.. In CyberPsychology & Behavior 12, 5: 493-499. NY, USA. Mary Ann Libert. doi:10.1089/cpb.2009.0013

From Playability to a Hierarchical Game Usability Model

Lennart E. Nacke. 2009. From Playability to a Hierarchical Game Usability Model. In Proceedings of Future Play 2009. Vancouver, BC, Canada. ACM, 11-12. doi:10.1145/1639601.1639609

Game Experience: Components and Methods of Measurement

Lennart E. Nacke. 2009. Game Experience: Components and Methods of Measurement. In Proceedings of FUGA 2009. Espoo, Finland. Helsinki Institute for Information Technology. Online: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A835762

Gameplay Experience in a Gaze Interaction Game

Lennart E. Nacke, Sophie Stellmach, Dennis Sasse, and Craig A. Lindley. 2009. Gameplay Experience in a Gaze Interaction Game. In A. Villanueva, J.P. Hansen, and B. K. Ersbo II. Eds. Proceedings of COGAIN 2009. Lyngby, Denmark. The COGAIN Association, 49-54.

Playability and Player Experience Research

Lennart E. Nacke, Anders Drachen, Kai Kuikkaniemi, Joerg Niesenhaus, Hannu Korhonen, Wouter M. van den Hoogen, Karolien Poels, Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn, and Yvonne A. W. de Kort. 2009. Playability and Player Experience Research. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2009. Brunel University, West London, UK. DiGRA.

Trends and Techniques in Visual Gaze Analysis

Sophie Stellmach, Lennart E. Nacke, Raimund Dachselt, and Craig A. Lindley. 2009. Trends and Techniques in Visual Gaze Analysis. In A. Villanueva, J.P. Hansen, and B. K. Ersbo II. Eds. Proceedings of COGAIN 2009. Lyngby, Denmark. The COGAIN Association, 89-93.