Dennis Kappen and Lennart Nacke. 2013. The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications. In Proceedings of Gamification 2013. Stratford, ON, Canada. ACM, 119-122.
Developers of gamified business applications face the chal- lenge of creating motivating gameplay strategies and crea- tive design techniques to deliver subject matter not typically associated with games in a playful way. We currently lack models that frame what makes gamification effective (e.g., what drives people to engage with a business application). Thus, we propose a design approach and analysis tool for gamification: The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification. We take a look at current models of game design, self de- termination theory and the principles of systems design to deconstruct the gamification layer in the design of these applications. Based on the layers of our model, we provide design guidelines for effective gamification.