The Games User Research (GUR) community has been collectively working towards understanding how player preferences and experiences can be understood and classified. A validated model of player motivations and behaviours can help game designers create games better targeted to their audience. But despite the efforts of the community and the recent advances, we still lack a definitive player traits model and a validated survey to score people on each trait. Therefore, after years of research, the HCI Games Group developed a new Five-Factor Player Traits Model, based on the existing literature and our own research studies.
This player traits model measures player preferences for five different styles of gameplay. Each person will have a different score for each player trait. Thus, a complete player profile includes a score for each trait. A player profile can be obtained by taking the player traits scale survey. The five traits in the model are:
This trait measures the player’s preference for playing together with others online or in the same space. Players who score high on this trait generally prefer to play together with others. They enjoy multiplayer games and competitive gaming communities, whereas players who score low would prefer to play alone.
This trait measures the player’s preference for aesthetic experiences, such as exploring the game world and noting the game’s graphics, sound, and art style. Players who score high on this trait enjoy aesthetic experiences in games, such as exploring the world, enjoying the scenery, or noting the quality of the graphics, sound, and art style. On the other hand, players who score low might focus more on gameplay than the aesthetics of the game.
This trait measures the player’s preference for games with complex stories or narratives. Players who score high on this trait enjoy games with complex narratives and stories, whereas players who score low usually prefer games with less story elements. Players who score low in this trait might also skip the game’s story or cutscenes and feel that sometimes the story gets in the way of gameplay.
This trait measures the player’s preference for fast-paced and challenging gameplay. Players who score high on this trait generally prefer difficult games and hard challenges. Contrarily, players who score low prefer easier or casual games.
This trait measures the player’s preference for gameplay that involves completing quests or tasks, collecting digital objects, or similar experiences. Players who score high on this trait enjoy completing game goals and strive to complete games 100%, explore all the options, complete all the collections, and so on. On the other hand, players who score low might leave optional quests unfinished, and are usually more relaxed if they do not complete a game 100%.
Take the test!
Would you like to know your player traits profile? Take our player traits scale survey!
The following publications present our player traits research:
“I don’t fit into a single type”: A Trait Model and Scale of Game Playing Preferences
Player Characteristics and Video Game Preferences
Towards a Trait Model of Video Game Preferences
Use the scale in your research
Please see these summarized instructions to use the scale in your research project: The scale and instructions are available in multiple languages.
- The Five Factor Player Traits Scale – English (validated)
- Fem-faktor skalaen for spillerkaraktertræk – Dansk
- Die Fünf-Faktoren-Skala für Spielertypen – Deutsch
- Escala de los Cinco Factores de Características de Jugadores – Español
- Les Cinq Facteurs des Traits De Joueurs – Français
- Játékosok ötfaktoros jellemvonás-skálája – Magyar
- Il Questionario dei Tratti del Giocatore a Cinque Fattori – Italiano
- A Escala de Traços de Jogadores em Cinco Fatores – Português
- Fem-faktors skalan för karaktärsdrag i spel – Svenska
- مقیاس العوامل الخمسة لسمات اللاعب – اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ
The player traits infographic is licenced under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence by the HCI Games Group, using icons licenced under a CC BY 3.0 licence from game-icons.net.